Workplace Tobacco Management Project Research Findings (Evaluation) Report by Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Association ACT
3. Research evaluation
Purpose of the research evaluationThe purpose of this research evaluation was to determine if the aims of the Project were met. Therefore the evaluation is concerned with:
- Monitoring pilot site tobacco management policy development and implementation (including the processes involved).
- Monitoring staff awareness of and attitudes to workplace tobacco management policies
- Measuring staff, management and governance structure involvement on tobacco management policy development and implementation processes.
- Monitoring staff, management and governance structure support for the development and implementation of tobacco management policies within organisations.
- Monitoring (including measuring changes in) smoking behaviours and attitudes within the pilot sites pilot sites.
- Evaluating what processes and factors contributed to changes in the above.
MethodologyThis research evaluation used a mixed methods approach.
Research design and data elements
DesignThe evaluation used two methods to monitor and evaluate the Project:
- Repeated measures tests measured changes in participantsʼ smoking behaviours, attitudes to, and knowledge of organisational policies.
- Qualitative survey data, observation and interviews at each organisation were used to answer the how and why of decisions taken within the pilot organisations regarding policy development and implementation processes.
Data collection matrixThree methods of data collection were used to inform the monitoring and evaluation.
Baseline organisation and staff surveysSurveys of organisations and staff were undertaken within pilot organisations to elicit information about:
- Tobacco policy elements currently in place
- Prevalence of smoking amongst staff
- Levels of nicotine dependence amongst smokers
- Intention of staff to quit or reduce
- Previous quit attempts (smokers and ex-smokers) including stories about the Quit experience (QUAL)
- Staff knowledge of workplace tobacco policy
- Staff observations concerning smoking culture (or no culture of smoking) at work
- Circumstances impacting on decisions to quit smoking for smokers and ex-smokers
- Barriers and enablers to policy development and implementation in the workplace (QUAL)
- Attitudes to tobacco in specified workplace settings
Follow-up survey of organisations and staffThe follow up surveys were used to monitor changes in from the baseline survey.
Field notes (observations) and field interviewsThe initial Project Manager made a number of field notes from observing processes around tobacco policy developments within the pilot sites. These observations were concerned with how the policy process was being undertaken in each pilot site. The results from these observations are mixed with the quantitative data where appropriate and offer insights into the how and why of the policy development and implementation processes within sites. In addition to these field observations,
additional field interviews were conducted from June to September 2011. These interviews were with management and staff in each of the pilot sites. The interviews aimed to assess how the process of tobacco policy development and implementation was seen by staff, management and by their governing structures.
SamplingAll staff in the nine pilot sites were eligible to complete the baseline and follow –up internet based surveys. The surveys were conducted as a census.
Data AnalysisThe baseline and follow-up surveys were analysed using SPSS version 19.
Descriptive analysisDescriptive analysis is provided for:
- Staff participation
- Sector of work
- Age groups
- Income groups
Inferential analysisWhere indicated, testing for statistically significant differences between independent and dependent variables was conducted.
For each of the categorical repeated measures included in this report Cochranʼs Q Test has been utilised to examine statistical significance of changes in variables over time.
For continuous data one-way repeated measures ANOVA has been conducted to test for statistical significance.
Qualitative analysisA cross case analysis was conducted to determine any common themes across sites. Thematic analysis was performed by examining the content (content analysis) of the qualitative data gathered from the field reports, interviews and surveys.
Themes are organized and presented in categories.
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